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Best practices

Enable overflow checks#

It's usually helpful to panic on integer overflow. To enable it, add the following into your Cargo.toml file:

[profile.release]
overflow-checks = true

Use assert! early#

Try to validate the input, context, state and access first before taking any actions. The earlier you panic, the more gas you will save for the caller.

#[near_bindgen]
impl Contract {
pub fn set_fee(&mut self, new_fee: Fee) {
assert_eq!(env::predecessor_account_id(), self.owner_id, "Owner's method");
new_fee.assert_valid();
self.internal_set_fee(new_fee);
}
}

Note: as of the SDK version 4.0.0-pre.2, there is a more lightweight version of the Rust assert! macro called require!.

#[near_bindgen]
impl Contract {
pub fn set_fee(&mut self, new_fee: Fee) {
require!(env::predecessor_account_id() == self.owner_id, "Owner's method");
new_fee.assert_valid();
self.internal_set_fee(new_fee);
}
}

Use log!#

Use logging for debugging and notifying user.

When you need a formatted message, you can use the following macro:

log!("Transferred {} tokens from {} to {}", amount, sender_id, receiver_id);

It's equivalent to the following message:

env::log_str(format!("Transferred {} tokens from {} to {}", amount, sender_id, receiver_id).as_ref());

Return Promise#

If your method makes a cross-contract call, you probably want to return the newly created Promise. This allows the caller (such as a near-cli or near-api-js call) to wait for the result of the promise instead of returning immediately. Additionally, if the promise fails for some reason, returning it will let the caller know about the failure, as well as enabling NEAR Explorer and other tools to mark the whole transaction chain as failing. This can prevent false-positives when the first or first few transactions in a chain succeed but a subsequent transaction fails.

E.g.

#[near_bindgen]
impl Contract {
pub fn withdraw_100(&mut self, receiver_id: AccountId) -> Promise {
Promise::new(receiver_id).transfer(100)
}
}

Reuse crates from near-sdk#

near-sdk re-exports the following crates:

  • borsh
  • base64
  • bs58
  • serde
  • serde_json

Most common crates include borsh which is needed for internal STATE serialization and serde for external JSON serialization.

When marking structs with serde::Serialize you need to use #[serde(crate = "near_sdk::serde")] to point serde to the correct base crate.

/// Import `borsh` from `near_sdk` crate
use near_sdk::borsh::{self, BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize};
/// Import `serde` from `near_sdk` crate
use near_sdk::serde::{Serialize, Deserialize};
/// Main contract structure serialized with Borsh
#[near_bindgen]
#[derive(BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize, PanicOnDefault)]
pub struct Contract {
pub pair: Pair,
}
/// Implements both `serde` and `borsh` serialization.
/// `serde` is typically useful when returning a struct in JSON format for a frontend.
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize)]
#[serde(crate = "near_sdk::serde")]
pub struct Pair {
pub a: u32,
pub b: u32,
}
#[near_bindgen]
impl Contract {
#[init]
pub fn new(pair: Pair) -> Self {
Self {
pair,
}
}
pub fn get_pair(self) -> Pair {
self.pair
}
}

std::panic! vs env::panic#

  • std::panic! panics the current thread. It uses format! internally, so it can take arguments. SDK sets up a panic hook, which converts the generated PanicInfo from panic! into a string and uses env::panic internally to report it to Runtime. This may provide extra debugging information such as the line number of the source code where the panic happened.

  • env::panic directly calls the host method to panic the contract. It doesn't provide any other extra debugging information except for the passed message.

Use simulation testing#

Note: simulation testing is deprecated in favor of Sandbox testing.

Simulation testing allows you to run tests for multiple contracts and cross-contract calls in a simulated runtime environment. Read more, near-sdk-sim